Prevention of the catastrophes
In paper about the generator of energy "Ray" the embodying of the new expedient of reception of energy from water, developed on the basis of the Unified Theory, is featured. Let's give an instance of calculation of the featured generator of energy. References to the literature are given on the list, specified on the main page of the site.
The generator chamber becomes from stainless steel. The chamber fastens by flanges (fig. 1) to the bringing water pipe and the waste accordingly. The thin protective blanket of the mobile plate is executed from a stellite. The centre of the mobile plate is executed from a piezoelectric ceramics, placed in water [42, pages 198, 444, 445, 446, 449]. The massive stratum of the mobile plate is executed from stainless steel. The thin protective blanket is bent about end faces of two other stratums (fig. 2), retains them together and seals them.
Chamber breadth it is accepted equal 0,4 m., length (the size in the direction of fluxion of water) 0,2 m. Altitude of the working chamber (the distance from a bottom of the chamber to the upper standing of the mobile plate) we will accept a little more than 0,01 m. That is more than the length of chains of molecules of water [1, p. 71], in which they are upbuilt at a collapse of bubble caverns. It is necessary for the peak efficiency of the generator, as at such altitude of the chamber it is took away energy of all tensioned chains of molecules, that gained from thermal energy of water. We will accept this altitude of 0,02 m. If the chamber altitude is less than 0,01 m., then the power will be accordingly less. At greater altitude this power will be, as well as at the altitude of 0,01 m. The thickness of the mobile plate in a place of contact to the chamber walls 0,01m. The thickness and breadth of the flat stock is equal accordingly 2 ∙ 10-3 m. and 0,05 m. The altitude of the guide in the upperimmobile plate 0,04 m.
Thermal energy Et is removed from water of the working chamber for one cycle will be equal [45, 1] to the product of the volume of a sheet of water in altitude, equal the length of chains in the working chamber (look above, 0,01m.) on heat capacity of water and on a lapse rate of depression of water temperature. At the initial temperature of water Т = 20 °С the peak lapse rate of a liquid state will be equal D Т = 20 ° C. Then Et = 0,4 m. ∙ 0,2 m. ∙ 0,01 m. ∙ 4,2 kJ/kg · deg = 67,2 kJ.
The gained energy is transmuted as a result of heat-mechanical shock into the fluid in energy of pressure on the piezoceramics stratum. We will accept the frequency of operation of the impulse generator 1 Hz, i.e, 1c-1. Then the power, brought to the piezoelectric ceramics, equal 67, 2 kwt, should be, taking into account the electromechanical force factor кe , into power on the exit from the piezoelectic element. We will accept [42, p. 198] кe = 0,7. From here on the piezoelectic element exit the power Nex = 67,2 ∙ 0,7 = 47 kwt = 67 hp. Let us werify, what nominal capasity Nn on the exit, accepted above sizes, can give the piezoelectic element at its specific power [42, p. 446] 10 2 Bt/cm2. Nn = 40 cm ∙ 20 cm ∙ 102 wt / cm2 = 80 kwt. Having compared the power, brought to the piezoelectic element, with its possibility, it is possible to conclude, that the piezoelectic element of the accepted sizes is admissible at its face value and on the exit will give out the power of 47 kwt = 67 hp.
At water temperature depression not on 20 0 С, as in the specified instance, but, for example, on 5 0 C, this power will be less in 20: 5 = 4 times. 47: 4 = 12 kwt.
Let's define coefficient performance (CP) of the generator.
CP = Nus / Nsp;
where Nus - useful power, Nus = Nex (see above);
Nsp - spent power.
As the generator operation period is equal 1 c (see above), then it is possible to translate calculation from power N on work A.
Nsp = Asp = 2Aplfr + Ainhfr + Aexhfr + 2 Astfr + Abubcav;
Where Aplfr– the work, spent for overcoming of a wet friction between end faces, moistened with water the mobile plate and the lateral walls of the chamber;
Ainhfr– the work, spent for a friction at an inhausting. (Consists of the expenses for the friction on a length of the chamber at water fluxion in the chamber during the inhausting Ainh len and the expenses on the inlet in the chamber Ainh in).
Аexh fr– the work, spent for a friction at an exhaust. (Consists of the expenses for the friction on a length of the chamber during the exhaust Аexhlen and the expenses on the exit from chamber Аexh ext).
Astfr – the work on overcoming of a friction of the greasing between the stock and its guide at the inhausting and the exhaust.
Abubcav - the work, spent for formation of the bubble cavities in the chamber.
Let's define components of the losses.
Aplfr = ls ∙ F pl fr;
where ls - a stroke of the mobile plate, ls = 0,01 m. (see above).
F pl fr - a frictional force between the plate and the chamber walls.
F pl fr = h Sfr Vpl/ad [1, p. 127];
where h - dynamic viscosity of water, h = 1 ∙ 10-3 Pa·c.
Sfr - the friction square on plate perimeter. At the altitude of an edge of the plate 0,01 m. Sfr = 0,012 m.2 .
Vpl – velocity of a motion of the plate, Vpl = 0,01m. : 0,5s.. = 0,02 m./s.
ad – the distance between boundary sheets of water, equal to the clearance between the plate and chamber walls. ad = 0,1 ∙ 10-3 m.
Then for one stroke of the plate Aplfr= 2,4 ∙ 10-5 j. Accordingly together with plate return stroke 2 Aplfr = 4,8 ∙ 10-5 j.
Ainh in = Nin ∙ ts;
where ts - a time of the stroke of the plate – the time of flowing of water in the chamber, ts = 0,5 c.;
Nin - the power, spent for pumping of water through the inlet opening. From the reference book on hydraulic calculations (П.Г.Kиселёв)
Nin = gw ∙ Q in ∙D H;
where gw - water volume weight, gw = 104 Н/м3;
Q in - the rate of flux through the chamber inlet opening, Q in = Vpl ∙ F pl . Vpl = 0,02 m./s. (see above). Fpl - the plate square, Fpl = 0,4 m. ∙ 0,2 m. = 0,08 m.2 . Then Q in = 0,02 ∙ 0,08 = 0,0016 m.3/s.
∆H – head losses at sharp expansion. From specified above the reference book
∆H = (V1 - V2) 2 / 2g;
where V1 – the velocity of water in the inlet opening;
V1 = Q in /Fop;
Where Q in = 0,0016 m.3/s. (see above)
Fоp - the inlet opening square in the chamber, Fоp = 0,4 ∙ 0,01 = 0,004 m.2 .
Then V1 = 0,4 m./s. .
V2 – medial velocity of water in the chamber at an inhausting, equal to medial velocity of a motion of the plate, V2 = Vpl = 0,02 m./s. .
Accordingly D H = 0,008 m.
From here Ainh in = 6,4 ∙ 10-2 j .
Considering certain similarity of processes on the inlet and the exit of water from the chamber, we accept Aexhex = Ainh in = 6,4 ∙ 10-2 j. .
The specified losses will be more low at use in the generator of roundings of walls on the inlet and the exit of water.
Because of the shape of the flowing chamber in form of the low slot Ainh len is possible to fine by the formula
Ainh len = lsl ∙ h ∙ Sslfr ∙ Vstr / astr [1, p.127];
where lsl - a stream path length in the slot, lsl = 0,2 m.
h = 1 ∙ 10-3 Pa·s. (see above).
Sslfr - the friction square on the trajectory of the stream in the slot, Sslfr = 0,2 ∙ 0,4 = 0,08 m.2;
Vstr – medial velocity of the flat stream on the trajectory from the inlet opening (V1 = 0,4 m./s.) to its end – to the exhaust opening in the time of the inhausting (Ven = 0).
Vstr = (V1 - Ven)/2 = 0,2 m./s. .
astr - the thickness (altitude) of the flat stream in the chamber, astr = 0,02 m.
Then Ainh len = 0,16 ∙ 10-3 j.
Considering the identity of processes of fluxion of water in the slot at inhausting and an exhaust we will accept Aexh len = Ainh len = 0,16 ∙ 10-3 j. .
Astfr it is definable by formula
Astfr = lst ∙ hol ∙ Sstfr ∙ Vst / аst [1, p.127];
where lst - a trajectory of an oil friction of the stock about the guide at one stroke, lst = 0,01 m.;
hol - dynamic viscosity of oil, hol = 30 ∙ 10-3 Pa·s. ;
Sstfr - the square of a friction of the stock, Sstfr = (2∙10-3) ∙ (5∙10-2) ∙ (4 ∙ 10-2) = 4 ∙ 10-6 m.2;
Vst – velocity of a motion of the stock, Vst = Vpl = 2 ∙ 10-2 m./s.;
аst - a clearance between the stock and the guiding, аst = аd = 0,1 ∙ 10-3 m.
Then Astfr = 2,4 ∙ 10-5 j. ;
Abubcav it is definable by formula
Abubcav = А bub1cav ∙ ncav;
where А bub1cav – the work on a tension of one bubble cavity from nought to 1 mm. From [1, p. 133] А bub1cav = s ∙ 8 π r2 = 0,07 ∙ 8 ∙ 3,14 ∙ (0,5 ∙ 10 - 3) 2 = 0,42 ∙ 10-6 N∙м;
ncav - maxinun necassary quantity of the formed caverns. From the size in plan of the mobile plate and the length of a molecular chain of 0,01 m (see above about appointment of altitude of the chamber) we will gain, that along the long side of the chamber, equal 0,4 m., is required a series from 0,4: 0,01 = 40 caverns. Accordingly along the short side from 20 caverns. In total it is required cavern 40 ∙ 20 = 800 ones.
Then Abubcav = 3,36 ∙ 10-4 N∙м.
Having substituted all values of components in the formula of “CP”, we gain CP = 470. Such CP will be at the altitude of the chamber no , than 0,01 m. and a requirement of use of the maximum temperature gradient (see above: Dt = 20 0С); At magnification of altitude of the chaamber CP will decrease in so much time, in how many time its altitude will be increased. So at the conversion of the altitude from accepted in the instance of 0,02 m CP will decrease in 2 times and it will be equal 235. At the takeoff of warmth from water with depression of its temperature, for example, on 5 0С, CP will be less in 20: 5 = 4 times and will be equal 235: 4 = 60.
The gained CP radically differs from CP < 1, of the known generators, as in the known generators the only part of brought energy is transmuted into the useful energy. In the given generator the energy only for a motion of parts of the generator is brought, but took the thermal energy of the fluid, which find in the chamber of the generator. Besides in the known generators the working medium temperature raises and warmth of a working medium intensively dissipates in a surrounding medium. In the new generator the working medium temperature is downgraded, and warmth is transmuted into mechanical shock, practically without dissipating. It is caused by that process of takeoff of thermal energy occurs passing the known thermodynamic processes, caused by a chaotic motion of molecules.
From the calculation it is visible that the new generator, developed on universality of the Unified Theory of Nature, will be rather effective at its most various applications.