## Space and Time - the meaning of the expression of Lucretius Carus is revealed

The meaning of Space and Time still has a lot of confusion. Definition of the dimensionality of physical Space in the modern physics is unreasonably taken on Evklid (300 years BC) though the newer definition (200 years after Evklid) has been given by Ptolemej, who proved that the natural Space cannot have more than 3 measurings. At the proof the greater regularities of Space* ,* than that we see, are used, in our opinion, not enough sensible arguments: "And though we not in a state to present, as there transits a similar straight line, is obvious that formally it could exist" [2, p. 168]. Here the obvious contradiction in the argument: "not in a state to present, but it is obvious".

The modern physics could not be retained from the mathematical temptation of identification of the multidimensionality of the mathematical space with the regularity of the physical Space, in which effect, in our opinion, the series of the serious physical problems has pleasantly disappeared. This identification has occurred after G.Kantor's opening of the mathematical identity of a line and a surface that has led of physicists to the imperceptible identification of the mathematical and the physical concepts of a point. Physicists have gained that the fifth measuring of Kalutsa-Klejn degenerates in the sphere of the size 10^{- 32 }cm. It is in many times less of an atom kern, therefore has removed the problems of the motion of a kern in the fifth measuring.

The further use of the calibrating symmetries for the integrating of 4 fundamental interactions has led to 11 measurings that intolerable has complicated the scientific representation about Nature.

All existing lives in 3 measurement Universe. However in the physicist, in our opinion, the mathematical proofs on the basis of the two-dimensional unphysical Spaces are unreasonably given. The mathematical analogy is not the sufficient warrant for the statement of the interior physical likeness. So, in the existing mathematical substantiation of process of Big Bang it is underlined that there is the ubiquitous expansion of Space without any centre. By thus the analogy to the swelling ball, which the surface segments leave mutually, is given, without having the direction neither from what, nor to what. However it is not noted that here the expansion of 2-dimensional space occurs because of expansion 3-dimensional of a point! From this it follows that and in Big Bang there should be the centre. But about it do not speak.

The consequence from 2nd fundamental property of World (all moves – changes): the comparison of two movements close proceeding in Space or of standings of two close disposed the bodies demands only three space co-ordinates: Х, Y, Z. At comparison of the mutually remote or many movements the person had a psychological requirement for use of a reference (basic) motion, for example, the gyration of Earth. Here in mind of the person there is the fictitious co-ordinate of motion *– *"Time". Therefore speak:« I have transited 3 km for 1 hour ». But the true consists that I went and Earth moved also. I have transited 3 km, and Earth, for example, 3121 km. Any of 1 hour – any of Time! Simply the parametre of a motion "Time" is so the convenient and so at mankind the habitual, that began to play imperceptibly a role of the real co-ordinate of a motion.

To this guess and then to the inclining the author has come, having acquainted with P.Davis's book ([2, p. 77] see above) in which he speaks about the rather recently arisen concepts:«Field" and "Energy". "When the abstract concept appears so effective that becomes by the property of wide ranges of nonspecialists, then the distinction between the real and the speculative disappears».

Such transmutation has occurred and with the concept "Time". But as the concept "Time" is used thousands years and now billions people used, but by the concepts: "Field" and "Energy" – though also numerous, but is the significant smaller group of people, then about that the «field» and the «energy» – the fictitious concepts, only experts occasionally remember, but about the fictitiousness of "Time" – never and nobody.

About that a co-ordinate of motion "Time" is not present objectively existing, it is confirmed long before Our Era. So Lukretsy Kar (1 century BC) in the book «About the nature of things» wrote: «Time exists not in itself.... It is impossible to understand time in itself, irrespective of a quiescence and a motion of bodies».

However this expression has been treated by A.Einstein from the mathematics positions^{*} i.e. as the existence of the quantitative dependence of time from motion of bodies, consequently the co-ordinate "Time" exists objectively and that Time depends on travelling speed.

In our opinion, L.Kar has told the other. He has told, first, that "in itself", i.e. the objectively existing, Time is not present (but there is only as the subjectively existing), secondly − about the qualitative dependence of the subjective Time from a motion, i.e. the motion is, means, there is the subjective time (convenient for comparison of movements). It meant that it is necessary to speak about time only at transition from a quiescence in a state of a motion and in the presence of a motion. L.Kar has told that the objectively existing Time absolutely is not present, but A.Einstein treated that there is no the absolute Time (and there is the relative).

About that time is not the real independent co-ordinate of a motion, it seems to us, told also N.I.Lobachevsky. He wrote [16, p. 74]: «...one of those movements is taken for comparison with others and it is termed time». (See the analogy with given above about the reference motion).

A careful study of various movements leads to the following. For comparison of movements it is necessary the concurrence of the beginning of movements or of their extremity. Then the comparison of the movements proceeding in Space far apart, is impossible without use of a basic motion, i.e. without the fictitious co-ordinate "Time" to which it is possible to compare one motion, and the another. From here it was born already in the ancient time the false thought – as without time it is impossible to be bypassed, then all proceeds in Time.

The concept"Time" is very convenient and very habitual, since in our life it is constantly necessary to compare numerous motions (in particular, and such physical performances of a motion, as the impulse of force *N _{i}* ∆

*t*, momentum

_{i}*m*, the kinetic energy

_{i}v_{i}*m*

_{i}v_{i}^{2}/2). However if the fair attempt to make through into essence of Nature is done, it is necessary to know well that Time as the motion co-ordinate does not exist

**.**

A.Einstein has made here, in our opinion, the basic error, having taken over the time as the co-ordinate, isotropic to the space co-ordinates: Х, Y, Z. Besides, he has made also the purely physical error, having used the mathematical analogy of Pifagor’s theorem in three-dimensional physical space and his two-dimensional subspace for its extrapolation on G.Minkovsky's four-dimensional the mathematical space with the metric:

*dS ^{2} = dX^{2} + d*

*У*

^{2}*+ dZ*, (1)

^{2}– c^{2}dt

having termed thе mathematical space as the material.

T.Kalutsa and O.Klein have dilated the regularity of this "material" (so-called) spaces to 5 measurings, and the subsequent developers of theory of Material Space, using the concepts of symmetry and space calibration, have finished its dimensionality to 11 measurings, it have even more aggravated the situation in Nature knowledge.

It is necessary to score that the up-to-date researchers who are taking up the issue of a dynamic stability in Space, also come to the stable motion (i.e. the existence, see Space and Life) is possible only at three co-ordinates of Space, instead of the four and more [2, p. 170].

Thus, the real co-ordinates of bodies and movements – the linear co-ordinates: х, y, z. Hence, the tridimensional volume of Space is real. Time – the false co-ordinate, but that they are speak: «All changes in time», says only that all is mutually comparably (commensurable).

From here, though it will be unpleasant for many, the rather important gnoseological consequence streams: all views of a motion,** **selected by the up-to-date science in the special, it is possible to lead to one view of the motion – to the travel in space of three measurings, i.e. to the mechanical**.

It explains much: and Gravitation, and Inertia (see next), and the various behaviours of a spin of an electron in the various requirements, and the mysterious "right-hand rule", and the "left-hand rule", and many other things (Universality of the Theory see).

From given with all evidence streams the solution of the old physical problem: «to turn time back». This problem is solved simply – it is required infinite quantity *of *all mechanical movements (changes) in World Space to guide on co-ordinates: Х, Y, Z in return to the former motion the direction. It because of impossibility of the data acquisition on all in World Space motions is impossible and since it is impossible to create the control facilities [27] of these motions, of which to that also the infinite quantity. In it there is the solution so-called «the secret of a time machine». Apparently, this explanation radically differs from the explanation of "the secret of a Time Machine», given by A.Einstein when he says that it is impossible to turn time back, since it is impossible to move more promptly of light speed.

Thus, the existing physical meaning of Space and Time is erroneous. In the material presented, it received a new content, significantly different from the existing one. This new meaning allows us to solve many physical problems that have not been solved before (see Universality of the Theory).

* It is the example how the mathematics in a science has played the negative role.

** It is interesting, that exactly such representation has allowed to M.Faradeju and J. Maxwell to become the geniuses of science.