To light memory of Late Professor of Hydraulic Engeneering California Institute of Technology Robert Talbot Knapp I devote
Global warming and atomic power station explosions are directly related to water. Atomic power station explosions - because of the impossibility of operative cooling of the reactor water, and global warming - because of the basic impossibility of cooling of water of World Ocean. Both impossibility stream from the known operation of water according to laws of thermodynamics. However as the Unified Theory of Nature, featured here, is the universal, we will try to find the way out from the apparent line end on basis of other bottom - on the basis of the Unified Theory of Nature.
From the featured Unified Theory of Nature follows, that the ether from a general stream of ether to Earth flows in water on Earth (Explosions of galaxies and stars see). By that the ether inflows in each microvortex (Stars and galaxies see), of which water consists also. Then it is the fluxion in any volume of the fluid. Accordingly this fluxion is accompanied also by fluxion through each microvortex and each system of microvortexes (atom, a molecule, Chemical bond see). But according to Essence of Gravity, it is the local Gravity. Then, according essence of Gravity, the specified local Gravity creates in the fluid the filtrational pressure in the direction of rapprochement of an atom to an atom (of a molecule to a molecule). It is means, the fluid is squeezed by local Gravity. It was secret of water (fluid). From here streams, that the known Van der Waals forces, according to the Unified Theory of Nature, in essence are the local Gravity – the ether filtering. From here streams also that the Van der Waals forces – are not an attraction of molecules and atoms, as it is considered in the modern science about a fluid.
Then at fluid cavitation there is a following. On concave boundary of fluid with gases (or steam) in slaming down bubble cavity the specified filtering will have power action only behind and from sides of each atom (molecule) in the direction to cavity centre.Then for the Gravity cause this power action leads to the motion of atoms forward on cavity radius. Because of sphericity of the cavity the motion will have convergence. Then between started to move forward atoms the lateral cross emphasis will originate inevitably. At this lateral emphasis of row of forward atoms the unstable structure is formed of them. Because of its unstability it is capable to be destroyed at the slightest action, for example, thermal atom oscillations. Then the thermal motion of one of the next atoms at which it is guided at present moment on cavity radius forward, is maintained. By that the given motion gains in strength by the specified radial filtrational activity of local Gravitation (of Van-der-Vaals forces).
And further, as soon as thermal oscillation of one of next, had dispose behind first atoms in the specified stratum of a fluid, will be accepted the direction on cavity radius, it for the same causes too will be carried out. Other motions: the sideways, the back are inhibited by local Gravity – the local filtering of ether in the direction to cavity centre, that is are not permitted. Thus, thermal motions of atoms are maintained, but all of them proceed simultaneously in one phase and only in the allowed direction – on the radiuses to the cavity centre. The new secret of a fluid (water) is unclosed: it can rank thermal oscillations of molecules (atoms).
From given it is visible that the first row of atoms for the cause of the allowed thermal oscillation forward has kept away from the second. Then the former, specified above, comprehensive squeezing of fluid by the local Gravity – the filtering of ether (by Van der Waals forces) in the field of cavity boundary disappears. The squeezing changes on the tension in the direction of radiuses of the cavity.
As the featured unidirectional thermal motion of the forward atoms has gained in strength by the specified filtering of ether in the direction of radius of the cavity, then the distances between the atoms in this direction are incremented in addition. There is the elastic deformation of microvortexes of ether (atoms) first and the second row. According to the Unified Theory it is Inertia (Secret of Inertia see). But as soon as there is an inertial force, it reacts against at once to the subsequent tension of fluid by Gravity ("Secret of Inertia", a consequence 5 see above). Value of the force, interfering the tension of a fluid , will be back 1/r6, where r – the distance between atoms (molecules). Apparently from given, the Unified Theory of Nature has opened one more secret of water (fluid). In the field of a blanket of bubble cavity the Van der Waals force disintegrate on two forces: Gravity and Inertia(about erected by the Unified Theory the unity of other known forces look Unification of fundamental forces).
The specified process it is necessary prolonged in the direction from forward rows of atoms and further on cavity radiuses in fluid. The chain of ranked atoms of fluid is formed. As a result in this direction the medial distances between atoms of fluid appear more, than the former medial distances, which were at a random motion of atoms. Accordingly, the traversal in relation to the specified radius distances between atoms of chains will decrease a little because of the featured lack of the traversal thermal oscillations of atoms. Thus, the fluid maintains the former density – the fluid is not stretched, but it is organised definitely. It was drew down in one direction and a little squeezed in other. One more secret of water (fluid), hidden by the Nature, is opened. In the specified requirements in the fluid the operation of a Pascal law and law of thermodynamics comes to an end.
Further at an approach of the forward atoms (of the systems of microvortexes) to the same atoms of the opposite side of the spherical cavity the distance between colliding atoms starts to decrease intensively. It is caused by that the specified local filtrational streams of ether in the field of the coming nearer atoms began to put together mutually. The local Gravity has gained in strength ("Essense of Gravity" see). As a result, the distance between the forward atoms (systems of microvortexes) in the direction of the specified radius there are less, than the former medial distances between atoms at their former random motion. The microvortexes of ether (including the systems of microvortexes – atoms, "Chemical bond" see) also appear squeezed by the specified reinforced filtering of ether (by the local Gravity). There is the band of overcoming of elasticity of microvortexes of ether (Gravity against Inertia). The microvortexes change one’s form elastic with the velocity of motion of the approaching atoms – there is an interatomic shock. Therefore under the favorable requirements, for example, at presence in the bubble cavity only of pair, the shock can be accompanied by luminous radiation – sonoluminescence, which the cause was secret of water till now.
From given it is visible that in the band of collision of atoms (molecules) there is the interatomic (molecular) pressure known in the physicist. From this it follows that the value of pressure and the water density in the squeezed stratum during the terminating moment of the collapse of the bubble cavity reach the enormous values. The pressure – nearby 103 МПа and the density of the almost incompressible water changes from 1 g/sm3 on 2 g/sm3!
At once (it is direct behind the featured phase) the squeezed band starts to move on the stretched chains of the strained atoms (systems of microvortexes) with the velocity of motion of atoms – there is a motion of the squeezed band – the shock wave. The specified above elasticity of vortexes of chains (Inertia) is realized in the motion of the squeezed band on the cavity radiuses in the direction from cavity centre to periphery.
If on the shock wave trajectory there will be a solid body, it will have shock. We will term it the heat-mechanical. This is the disclosing of one more secret of water (fluid) - the mechanism of action of a fluid on firm materials at cavitation. The energy of this shock will be equal to the integrated thermal energy of the fluid of which the chains were formed. The laws of thermodynamics obviously here is not broken, as the heat transfer here misses. In the featured process of the taking away of energy on the taking away trajectory there is not a thermodynamic process, but the molecular (atomic).
If the body, which will have the featured shock, is a piezoelectric, then it is possible to remove electrical energy from it. We will gain the energy generator. By that the energy takeoff can be carried out from water in the nuclear reactor cooling system also. The high-speed character of process of takeoff of heat from a fluid allows to chill a fluid in the cooling system of nuclear energy stations almost instantly. It will prevent atomic power station explosions. Water-supplies in the form of huge conservation reservoirs are not required also.
The specified generators of energy and, accordingly, the drives, working on the basis of the heat-mechanical shock, it is possible to erect on all sea-crafts. The former reserves of fuel will not be necessary for crafts. Such generators and the drives can be started in wide application, and all other thermal generators and the drives to exchange on the specified above. Then there is the basic possibility of guidance of surroundings temperature, in particular, of Ocean and accordingly to be protected from global warming on Earth.
If the solid body has on the surface pores, the chains according to the featured mechanism of their formation will penetrate on the fluid in the pores. Then the specified energy and the pressure will be transferred by the undular trajectory in the pores. In a pore the squeezed wave at collision with the unevenness of the bottom and walls of pore will inevitably be destroyed. In the pore there will be the fluid, squeezed by the molecular pressure with a random motion of atoms. Such fluid will test the huge resistance to its outflowing because of a subtlety of the pipeline and presence of a roughness of walls. Any known firm material will be wrested by the molecular pressure 10 3 МПа, that is observed at the bubble avitations really.
At presence in a pores of gas the fracture will begin after a degassing of pores in the course of fluid cavitation. Before the fracture there will be a certain incubatory continuance, that is proved to be true by experiments with cavitation . Knowing the essence of heat-mechanical shock, featured above, it is possible realizely to develop production engineering of reception of firm materials or their special process[ng for exclusion of pores on their surface. Accordingly the cavity fracture of various details, including in cooling systems of rocket engines, disappear.
Thus, the Unified Theory of Nature opens variety of secrets of water and has detected the real trajectories of protection of mankind from global warming and atomic power station explosions, and has detected the basic new expedients of reception of a considerable quantity of low-cost energy also.